1968 - Constitution of the Communist Party of the Philippines

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Constitution of the Communist Party of the Philippines


The integration of the universal theory of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought with the concrete practice of the Philippine revolution is the highest task of the Communist Party of the Philippines.

The Communist Party of the Philippines is a revolutionary party of the proletariat that draws lessons from all previous revolutionary struggles of the Filipino people and from the great teachings of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao Zedong. It is in stride with the advance of the theory and practice of the world proletarian revolution guided by Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought.

The Communist Party of the Philippines firmly opposes modern re-visionism and all currents of subjectivism, Right or ¨Left¨ opportunism, liberalism and sectarianism, which must all be the target of relentless rectification and revolutionary vigilance. The Party constantly strives to develop the closest links with the masses of workers and peasants in the entire archipelago. It employs criticism and self-criticism to maintain the correct class standpoint and style of work.

The Party determinedly struggles to be the most advanced detach-ment and principal instrument of the Filipino working class, upholding proletarian revolutionary leadership in the ongoing stage of national democratic revolution against two principal enemies, US imperialism and feudalism, and in the subsequent stage of socialist revolution.

In order to defeat the US imperialists, the comprador big bourgeoisie and the landlords, the Party uses the weapons of protracted people´s war and national united front. The Party upholds the leadership of the working class, builds the basic alliance of the working class and the peasantry, and also attracts the petty urban bourgeoisie and the patriotic national bourgeoisie to the side of the national democratic revolution.

In waging the people’s war, the Party relies mainly on the mass sup-port of the peasantry, especially the poor peasants and farm workers. The Party develops the revolutionary forces in the countryside to destroy the pillars of feudalism and the armed counterrevolution there and surround the cities from revolutionary bases until the people’s democratic forces are ready to seize power in the cities.

It is both the patriotic national and internationalist duty of the Com-munist Party of the Philippines to overthrow US imperialism, feudal-ism and all domestic reaction. The national and social liberation of the Filipino people shall help weaken the imperialists and all reactionaries on an international scale; strengthen fraternal parties and peoples in their own just and progressive struggles. Through coordinated actions on the basis of proletarian internationalism and according to the policy of international united front the complete overthrow of imperialism and the world triumph of socialism in the era of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought will certainly be achieved.

Let us arm ourselves with invincible Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought!

ARTICLE I. Name, Flag and Emblem, Anthem and Pledge

Section 1. The name of this organization shall be Communist Party of the Philippines. If necessary, the Party shall differentiate itself by name and content from the Communist Party of the Philippines (Merger of the Communist and Socialist Parties) by adding the phrase Marxist-Leninist or Mao Zedong Thought in parenthesis.

Section 2. The Party flag and emblem shall be red with the hammer and sickle in gold or white at the middle.

Section 3. The Party anthem shall be the Internationale. Section 4. The Party pledge shall be as follows:

“I, ______, declare my full agreement with the theory and prac-tice of Marxism-Leninism-Zedong Thought, with the Program and Constitution of the Communist Party of the Philippines and with all decisions taken by higher Party organs and the Party unit to which I am assigned to work.

I pledge to perform all my duties and responsibilities to the best of my ability, to raise my proletarian revolutionary consciousness, to serve the people constantly and be close to them, to defend and fight for the interests of the people, to keep high the integrity and prestige of the Party, to safeguard the security of the Party and all my comrades at the cost of my life if necessary, to criticize my own mistakes and weaknesses and those of others with the full-est honesty so as to improve work and style of work and so as to build up unity and strength, and to advance the interests of the Party and the masses. I shall take every opportunity to propagate Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought and implement the proletarian revolutionary line of the Party.”

This pledge shall be taken when a person enters the Party as a candidate-member and when a candidate member is accepted as a Party member.

ARTICLE II. Membership

Section 1. Any citizen or resident of the Philippines, of at least 18 years of age, who accepts Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought, the Program and Constitution of the Party and agrees to work diligently in one of the Party organizations, carry out the decisions of the Party and pay the entrance fee and regular monthly dues may be accepted as a member of the Party.

Section 2. Party membership shall be valid only on an individual basis and in keeping with the following methods of arranging the acceptance of members:

a. Workers, farm workers, poor peasants, poor fisherman or urban poor may become members of the Party on the recommenda-tion of two Party members of good standing after having been accepted by a decision of a branch meeting, or as the case may be, the branch executive committee and after having completed a period of six months as candidate-members.

b. Middle peasants, middle fishermen, office workers, handicrafts-men, intellectuals or professionals, students and other segments of the petty bourgeoisie may become members of the Party on the recommendation of two Party members each of whom shall have been a member of good standing for at least one year, after having been accepted by the branch executive committee or Party group in a mass organization and after having completed a period of one year as candidate-members.

c. Persons of social positions other than those mentioned in sub-sections a. and b. above may become members of the Party on the recommendation of two Party members, each of whom shall have been accepted by the branch executive committee and after having completed a period of two years as candidate-members.

Section 3. Every Party member who recommends a person to be-come a Party member shall provide a responsible and true statement to the Party concerning the ideology, political record and personal character and life history of the person concerned. He shall give his recommendee an adequate understanding of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought, the Program, Constitution, policies and decisions of the Party. The recommendee shall formally answer a standard set of questions formulated by the Party.

Before taking any decision accepting a candidate-member, the branch executive committee or Party group concerned shall appoint a Party functionary to hold the broadest possible exchange of views with the person wishing to become a Party members, in order to get to know him and verify all pertinent information.

Section 4. Under special circumstances, higher Party committees and Party groups in mass organizations may directly accept a new member.

Section 5. Party organs concerned shall provide candidate-members with basic Party education on Marxism-Leninism and the Party Program and Constitution, require trial Party work and raise their political qual-ity.

The branch meeting, the Party committee or Party group may pro-long or shorten the period of candidacy based on the performance and conscientiousness of the candidate-member.

The status of candidate-member shall be withdrawn if it becomes clear that the candidate-member does not meet the requirements of becoming a Party member.

ARTICLE III. Rights and Duties of Members

Section 1. The duties of Party members shall be as follows:

To build up the unity and strength of the Party by raising the level of their understanding of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought and by applying this universal theory on the concrete problems of the Party and the people’s democratic revolution.

To place the interests of the Party, i.e., the interests of the masses of the people, above personal interests, serve the masses of the people without reserve, learn from them as well as clarify to them policies and decisions of the Party and make prompt reports to the Party regarding the people’s needs and aspirations:

To combat revisionism and all erroneous trends of thinking and action within the Party;

To abide by the Party Constitution and Program;

To carry out thoroughly the Party line and all particular assign-ments given to them;

To master their line of work and become models of discipline, hard work, modesty and simple living in Party organizations, mass organizations and among the people;

To conduct criticism and self-criticism in order to present mistakes and weaknesses, to try earnestly to overcome and correct them and to improve political work;

To work in a particular Party organization and to attend meetings regularly;

To attend study courses regularly and to read and disseminate

Party publications regularly;

To be loyal and honest to the Party and present all facts necessary for making correct decisions;

To pay dues promptly; and

To be alert to anything inside or outside the Party which endangers the Party and to oppose everything harmful to the interests of the Party and the people.

Section 2. The rights of Party members shall be as follows:

a. To participate freely in discussions during Party meetings con-cerning theoretical and practical problems regarding the Party line, policies and decisions;

b. To vote and be elected within the Party;

c. To submit proposals, statements or complaints to any party or-ganization or organ at any level;

d. To criticize any Party organization, organ or member in Party meetings;

e. To check the qualification of any candidate to any position or committee;

f. To appeal any decision to a higher Party organ up to the Central Committee and National Congress; and

g. To be present in any meeting called to evaluate their character-istics, work or any disciplinary action to be meted out on them, except when the security of the Party demands otherwise. Section 3. The duties and rights of candidate-members shall be the same as those of Party members, with the exception that they do not have the right to vote or be elected and do not have a voice in decision making within the Party.

Section 4. Candidate-members or Party members shall be free to resign from the Party. Every resignation shall be fully explained within the Party committee concerned.

Section 5. Every Party member regardless of merit and functions who fails to fulfil his duties or fails to respect the rights of his comrades shall be criticized and educated. Serious violations of rights and duties shall be met with proper disciplinary measures.

a. Any disciplinary action against Party members shall be decided by the branch or group in a mass organization to which they belong, but if the punishment meted out is expulsion, the approval of the Party committee immediately above shall be necessary.

b. Any disciplinary action against a member of a Party committee shall be decided by the conference that elected him into that of-fice or by a higher Party committee.

c. Any disciplinary action against a member or candidate-member of the Central Committee shall be decided by the Central Committee plenum.

Section 6. Disciplinary measures shall be meted out according to the gravity of the violation of Party discipline and shall take any of the following forms: warning, strong warning, removal from assignment, provision of trial work, suspension or expulsion from the Party.

Section 7. Every Party member shall adhere to the theory of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought, the Party’s class analysis of current Philippine society, the general line of new democratic revolution, the leading role of the working class through the Party, democratic cen-tralism, the principle of proletarian dictatorship in the form of people’s democratic dictatorship and other basic principles of building socialism. Any Party member who does not or who ceases to adhere to any of the aforesaid shall be asked to resign from the Party and if possible become an ally after an effort is exerted at further education deemed sufficient by the higher organ immediately above.

ARTICLE IV. Principle and Structure of Party Organization

Section 1. The structure of the Party shall be based on the principle of democratic centralism; meaning to say, centralism based on democracy and democracy under centralized leadership.

The basic conditions shall be as follows:

a. Leading organs of the Party at all levels shall be elected and shall be responsible to the Party organization or conference that elected them.

b. After free and thorough discussion, decisions taken by the Party shall be implemented.

(1) The individual is subordinate to the organization.

(2) The minority is subordinate to the majority.

(3) The lower level is subordinate to the higher level.

(4) The entire membership is subordinate to the Central Commit-tee and to the National Congress.

c. Leading organs of the Party shall always pay close attention to the reports and views of lower Party organizations and of the masses of Party members and they shall constantly study concrete experiences and render prompt assistance in solving problems.

d. Lower Party organizations shall give regular and special reports about their work to the organizations and of the masses of Party members and they shall request instructions promptly concerning problems, which require the decision of a higher Party organiza-tion.

e. All Party organizations shall follow the principle of collective leadership and all-important questions shall be decided collectively.

Section 2. A Party organization shall be established on the basis of territorial division or sphere of work.

a. The Party organ which arranges Party work in a given territory shall be the highest organ in that territory.

b. The Party organ which arranges Party work in a given territory or in a mass organization shall be the highest organ in that sphere of work or mass organization.

Section 3. The structure of the Party organizations and their leading organs shall be as follows:

a. For the whole of the Philippines, there shall be the entire national Party membership, the National Congress and the Central Com-mittee.

b. For the regions, there shall be the regional Party organization, the regional conference and the regional committee.

c. For the province, there shall be the provincial Party organization, the provincial conference and the provincial committee.

d. For the regular district, there shall be the district Party organiza-tion, the district conference and the district committee.

e. For the municipality, there shall be the Party section committee, section conference and section committee.

f. For factories, mines, plantations or haciendas, barrios, streets, offices, schools and residential areas, there shall be the Party branch, the branch meetings and the branch executive committee.

Section 4. The supreme leadership of the entire Party shall be the National Congress; that of a region, province, district and section shall be the corresponding conference; and that of a Party branch shall be the branch meeting.

Between branch meetings, Party conferences and national congresses, the Party committee shall be the leading organ of the Party organiza-tion at each level.

Section 5. All leading organs shall be elected:

a. The Central Committee shall be elected by the National Congress.

b. The committees at every level shall be elected by the Party con-ference at each corresponding area.

c. The branch executive committee shall be elected by the branch meetings.

The Central Committee shall set the standard requirements and pro-cedures for elections. Where circumstances may not permit the holding of elections the leading Party organs shall be appointed by higher Party committees.

Section 6. Members of the Central Committee must have been in the Party as an active member for at least three years.

Section 7. Leading organs or their members may be dissolved or dis-missed by the Party organizations which elected them or by the Party organs that appointed them even before the completion of their term of office.

Between Party conferences at any level, the higher Party committee may, if it deems necessary, remove functionaries of lower Party organs.

Section 8. The establishment of a new Party organization or the dis-solution of an existing one shall be decided upon by the organization or party organ immediately above it.

Section 9. Party committees from the section to the regional Party organization shall set up departments, bureaus, commissions and other necessary organs in accordance with requirements.

Section 10. Party organizations at any level may hold various types of meetings, seminars or conferences of cadres and active members to review or plan their work or to discuss important decisions of higher Party organs.

Section 11. Prior to the policy decision taken by a leading party organ, lower Party organizations may freely discuss the issue and put forward proposals to the leading Party organ. After a decision has been taken, they must abide by it.

However, if they hold the opinion that the decision does not accord with conditions in a certain territory or sphere of work, reconsideration of the decision may be requested. If the higher Party organ stands by its decision after making the proper reconsideration, lower Party organiza-tions shall be obliged to carry it out.

Section 12. The Central Committee shall be the organ that makes decisions and issues statements on questions of policy regarding national issues; although lower Party organizations and leading organs may dis-cuss these issues and are expected to submit their opinions to central leading organs but they shall be entitled to take their own decisions and issue their own statements only on local matters within their territorial scope.

Section 13. All Party publications must popularize the decisions and policies of the Party. All Party organizations must disseminate Central Committee publications. Local Party publications are required to get the approval of the leading Party organ immediately above them.

ARTICLE V. Central Organization

Section 1. The National Congress shall be called and convened by the Central Committee every five years, unless it is deemed necessary to hold it later or earlier. If a majority of regional Party Committees formally requests that the congress be held, then the Central Committee shall accede to the request.

The announcement of the holding of the National Congress shall be made at least one month in advance. The number of delegates and the method of their election by the lower Party organizations or selection by lower Party organs shall be decided by the Central Committee.

Section 2. The power and functions of the national Congress shall be as follows:

a. To discuss, ratify, review or amend the Program and Constitution;

b. To decide upon the political line of the Party;

c. To elect the members and candidate-members of the Central Com-mittee and other central organs after determining the appropriate size of membership in each organ;

d. To receive, discuss and endorse reports of the Central Committee and other central organs; and

e. To create central organs other than the existing organs, if necessary.

Section 3. Between national congresses, the Central Committee shall lead the entire work of the Party, implement the decisions of the National Congress, make current decisions and solve current problems, establish Party organs and lead their activities, direct and allocate Party cadres and attend promptly to appeals from lower Party organizations and individual members in cases of disciplinary action.

Section 4. The Central Committee at its Plenum shall elect the Politi-cal Bureau, the Executive Committee, the General Secretariat, and the Chairman and Vice Chairmen of the Central Committee, the General Secretary and other secretaries of the Central Committee.

a. The Political Bureau, together with its Executive Committee, shall exercise the power and functions of the Central Committee between plenums.

b. The General Secretariat of the Central Committee shall take charge of the daily administration, routine activities of the Party under the leadership of the Political Bureau.

The number of members and candidate-members of the Political Bureau, the Executive Committee and the General Secretariat shall be determined by the Central Committee. Vacancies occurring shall be filled ordinarily by candidate-members.

Section 5. The Central Committee shall form and lead such spe-cial organs as the Military Commission, the higher Party school (The Revolutionary School of Mao Zedong Thought) and central publications aside from the Secretariat and and its departments for organization and education.

Section 6. The Plenum of the Central Committee shall be convened once every six months by the Political Bureau. However, the Political Bureau or a majority of the Central Committee may decide to hold it earlier or later. Members and candidate-members of the Central Com-mittee shall attend the plenum with candidate-members having speaking rights but no voting rights.

ARTICLE VI. Territorial Organizations of the Party

Section 1. Territorial Party conferences shall be held regularly, in the case of regions, once every three years; in the case of provinces and districts, once every two years; and in the case of sections, once a year. Conferences may be held anytime, however, upon the decision of a higher Party organ or upon the petition of a majority of lower Party organs.

Section 2. The powers and functions of regional, provincial, district and section conferences shall be:

a. To receive, discuss and endorse the reports made by the Party committees and other Party organs at the same level;

b. To adopt resolutions on organizational and political questions; and

c. To elect the Party committee after determining the appropriate size of membership.

Section 3. At their respective plenums, territorial Party committees shall elect an executive committee and a secretariat (the secretary and deputies). The Secretary shall chair the plenums, the executive commit-tee and the secretariat.

Regional committees shall hold plenum once every six months, pro-vincial committees, once every three months and district and section committees, once every month.

Section 4. The regional, provincial, district and section committees, shall carry out the decisions of the higher Party organizations, create provisional lower Party organs, direct their activities and allocate Party cadres.

Section 5. The regional, provincial, district and section committees shall call work and study conferences every year to be attended by del-egates elected by the Party branches and groups in mass organizations below. These conferences are empowered to make recommendations to leading Party organs, especially to the leading committees, regarding organizational work and, political problems.

ARTICLE VII. Basic Organization of the Party

Section 1. The branch as a basic Party organization shall be estab-lished wherever at least three Party members can work together as a collective unit, according to place of residence, place of work and place of study. Party branches shall be established in factories, mines, planta-tions or haciendas, barrios, schools, streets, offices and residential areas and in every company of the people’s army. If in such places, there are less than three members, these Party members shall attach themselves to the nearest basic Party organization.

Section 2. If a Party branch exceeds fifteen members, the whole mem-bership shall be divided into branch groups for purposes of convenience and security, unless the branch is in a secure revolutionary base area. Each branch group shall never exceed ten members.

Section 3. The most fundamental task of the basic Party organization shall be to develop the closest links between the Party and the masses of the people.

The general responsibilities of the branch shall be:

a. To carry out propaganda and organizational work among the masses so as to implement the Party line and the policies and decisions of higher Party organs;

b. To learn from the masses their aspirations and demands make timely reports to the higher Party organs, give direction to and participate in the political, economic and cultural life of the peo-ple;

c. To muster material and moral support for the armed struggle waged by the New People’s Army;

d. To recruit new Party members and Red fighters, collect dues of Party members, examine reports from Party members and safe-guard Party discipline and security among members;

e. To organize the study of Party members and the dissemination of Party publications; and

f. To recommend Party members for cadre training at higher levels up to the Revolutionary School of Mao Zedong Thought.

Section 4. Branch meetings shall be held at least once a month. These shall be attended only by heads of branch groups if in an unstable and unprotected area it is difficult for all branch members to attend.

Branch meetings shall elect the branch executive committee and a secretariat (secretary and deputy secretaries) and appoint the heads of branch groups. The tenure of office of all these shall be one year.

Branch meetings shall approve applications for Party membership, receive and discuss reports of branch meetings and committees and decide upon the work of the entire branch.

Section 5. A Party member may belong to two basic Party organiza-tions (Party branch or group in a mass organization or institution) and pay his dues to only one, upon the permission of a higher Party com-mittee.

A Party member transferring from one branch to another shall carry the prior authorization of the section committee above the branch from which he is transferring.

ARTICLE VIII. Party Groups in Mass Organizations

Section 1. Party groups shall be secretly created at every possible level in labor organizations and in mass organizations of peasants, youth, student, women, cultural workers, professionals, handicraftsmen and the like where there are at least three Party members. The responsibili-ties of these Party groups shall include the implementation of Party policies and decisions, strengthening unity with non-Party activists and developing close ties between the Party and the masses within the mass organizations.

Section 2. Party members in bourgeois institutions of broad scope shall likewise organize themselves secretly into Party groups. Their responsibilities shall include the implementation of Party policies and decisions, gathering of information useful to the Party, exposure of the wrongs and weaknesses of the exploiting classes, and the recruitment of Party members from the ranks of the urban petty bourgeoisie.

Section 3. The membership of Party groups shall be fixed by the Party committee leading them. Party groups at every level in mass organiza-tions shall have a secretary and deputy secretaries.

Section 4. The status and rights of Party groups in the National Congress and in Party conferences shall be determined by the Central Committee.

ARTICLE IX. The Party’s Relationship with the New People’s Army

Section 1. The Party, through its Military Commission under the Central Committee and through its cadres at every level, shall lead and command the New People’s Army and guide it in the study and practice of Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought and shall develop the most advanced fighters into Party members.

Section 2. The Rules of the New People’s Army shall recognize the absolute leadership of the Party and its Military Commission and shall require the assignment of political officers to every armed unit of the New People’s Army.

Section 3. The New People’s Army shall be the main weapon of the Party in the people´s democratic revolution and in the subsequent so-cialist stage. It fully welds the basic alliance of the working class and the peasantry. In the countryside, it shall create an independent regime through armed struggle, agrarian revolution and rural bases.

Section 4. A Party branch in every command and a Party group in every platoon and squad shall be organized within the New People’s Army. Leading committees shall be created from the level of the branch to the highest military formation.

Section 5. The New People’s Army shall develop three main forms of armed forces: regular mobile forces, guerrilla units, and militia or self-defense corps. It shall be a force for fighting, for propaganda and for production.

Section 6. The Party shall develop the closest ties between the army and the people, between the Party and the army and between officers and men in a proletarian revolutionary spirit.

Section 7. The New People’s Army shall adhere strictly to the Three Main Rules of Discipline and the Eight Points of Attention:

The Three Main Rules of Discipline are:

1) Obey orders in all your actions.

2) Do not take a single needle or piece of thread from the masses.

3) Turn in everything captured.

The Eight Points of Attention are:

1) Speak politely.

2) Pay fairly for what you buy.

3) Return everything you borrow.

4) Pay for anything you damage.

5) Do not hit or swear at people.

6) Do not damage crops.

7) Do not take liberties with women.

8) Do not ill-treat captives.

ARTICLE X. Party Finances and Resources

Section 1. The Party shall be financed by members’ entrance fees and dues, by productive undertakings of the Party and by unconditional contributions and by fundraising.

Section 2. The urban and rural poor shall pay fixed monthly member-ship dues of fifty centavos.

Section 3. Persons wishing to enter the Party shall be obliged to pay an entrance fee equal to the amount of one month’s dues. Dues shall be paid monthly and shall be equivalent to 2.5 percent of the member’s income. However the payment of membership dues may be adjusted based on individual conditions, such as changing income, higher or lower income or greater needs of the family.

Section 4. Special assessments shall be made on members upon the approval of the Party committee concerned.

Section 5. Party members who hold positions made possible by the Party in non-Party entities shall hand over their earnings to the Party and shall receive an amount determined by the Party according to regu-lations and the necessities of the members.

Section 6. The Central Committee shall receive eighty percent of entrance fees, membership dues and other monthly income and shall apportion the amount at various levels. Twenty percent shall remain with the Party branch.

ARTICLE XI. Amendments and Extraordinary Circumstances

Section 1. This Constitution shall be amended by a simple majority of the National Congress.

Section 2. If the Party or any Party organization cannot function in full accordance with this Constitution because of extraordinary cir-cumstances, the forms of organization and methods of work shall be determined by the Central Committee or the Political Bureau.

Ratified by the Congress of Reestablishment of the Communist Party of the Philippines 26 December 1968